A work in progress.




THE

HANDBOOK

OF THE

ARTHUR TURNER

TRAINING SCHOOL


(Revised 2015)


15102015_42117_0.png

IQALUIT

NUNAVUT

Administered by
THE DIOCESE OF THE ARCTIC
The Anglican Church of Canada
PO Box 190
YELLOWKNIFE, NORTHWEST TERRITORIES
X1A 2N2





THE ARTHUR TURNER TRAINING SCHOOL
THE DIOCESE OF THE ARCTIC
THE ANGLICAN CHURCH OF CANADA
IQALUIT, NUNAVUT

HANDBOOK  SUMMARY
(Revised 2015)


Brief History of the School

The school was established in 1970 by Bishop D.B. Marsh, the second bishop of the Diocese of the Arctic. The Rev. M.G. Gardener was the first principal. The school was founded for the training of people, both lay and ordained, for the ministry of Christ’s Church particularly in the Diocese of the Arctic. Although the school was not established exclusively for aboriginal people all its student population up until this time have been Inuit. Since the school opened there have been 23 students ordained to the priesthood. Three of these are now bishops in the Diocese of the Arctic.

About this Handbook

This handbook was originally prepared in 1981 to contain a specially designed curriculum and to assist those involved in the school program, both lecturers and students. This revision is required to update and make minor changes to the material. The revision is small, evaluations made over the years have demonstrated the suitability of the special approach to the training for ordained ministry at the Arthur Turner Training School (ATTS).

The school is also used to train layleaders for service in the Diocese. Courses for these ministries have been offered at times when the facilities are not being used by ordinands. This handbook contains only the course set out for ordinands. The layleader course has its own handbook.


INTRODUCTION

“I have come down from heaven to do not my own will but the will of Him who sent me.” (John 6:38 TEV)

“He (God) appointed some to be…pastors and teachers…to prepare all God’s people for the work of Christian service, in order to build up the body of Christ.” (Ephesians 4:11-12 TEV)

“All ministry is God’s ministry. Jesus did not come to introduce his own ministry. His ministry was to do the will of the Father and to live by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.”   
ATTS seeks to train students who come to the school believing they have a personal call to the ordained ministry of the Church.   This call is affirmed by being demonstrated, accepted and supported by the local congregation of the student’s home parish.

An essential part of the ordained ministry for which the students receive training is that of helping all God’s people to fulfill the ministry to which God has called them. This ministry reaches out into the local community of the Parish of St. Luke’s, Pangnirtung, of which ATTS students form a part and it looks to the future seeing the ordained graduate as a member of the parish ministry team: a team made up of all the baptized.


CONTEXT OF THE SCHOOL

The school was established in, and designed to serve the people of the Diocese of the Arctic, and in that area particularly the Dene and Inuit whose culture has experienced rapid change since the turn of the last century especially since the 1950s. (See Appendix 1 for a discussion of this change and its effects on the development of the curriculum of ATTS.)


THE COURSE OF TRAINING

The course for ordinands covers three 11 month periods with one holiday each summer. Short breaks are taken at Christmas and Easter. A group of students, with their families, come to ATTS together and, on satisfactory completion of the course, graduate together. Under normal circumstances no new students join the course once it has started.

Courses are normally held Monday through Friday and students are expected to take part in the Sunday activities of the parish. From time to time the principal will allow days off as reading days or for hunting. This practice has a number of purposes. It allows the students to get out onto the land enabling them to hunt and fish and so care for their families and it also gives them a time of refreshment as they return to the traditional ways of their culture. It also gives those who are teaching extra time to prepare materials.


PATTERN OF OPERATION

It is recorded that when Jesus chose the twelve apostles he said to them “I have chosen you to be with me. I will also send you out to preach and you will have authority to drive out demons.” (Mark 3:14-15 TEV). He sought to prepare his disciples for ministry by first calling them into community with himself and into what might be called an apprenticeship program. The course at ATTS is modeled on Jesus’ method of training.


1.      We are called to be with Jesus.

When the 1981-1984 session of the school began the wives of the students were asked to design and make a hanging to go behind the Communion Table in the school chapel. It was suggested that the design be one which would illustrate why they and their families had come to the school. When they had finished the hanging, it was covered with a variety of people gathered around the cross. The meaning was made more explicit by the words ‘we want to see Jesus’. These words were written in two Inuktitut dialects and in English. But they did not come to the school to see Jesus for selfish reasons; one of the people is pictured with arms raised facing the others. Jesus is seen to be shared. It is also interesting to note that all the people pictured wear similar clothes – there is no particular individual or group in the Christian community who possesses the sole prerogative to tell of the Jesus whom they have seen.

The students and their families therefore come to the school to see Jesus, an intention assisted by many times of formal and informal worship, prayer, Bible study and a curriculum designed so that teaching is clearly seen as being derived from the Scriptures, with great emphasis on the person, words and works of Jesus. Theology as it has developed is seen as applying the person of Jesus and the words of the Bible to the contemporary situation.

2.      We are called to live in a small community.

ATTS is a very small school with, at the most, six students. There is only one permanent staff person – the principal. They and their families form a very close community. This community feeling is nourished not only by living closely together but also by regular celebrations of the Eucharist. Family prayers in each others homes and special meals to celebrate certain events.

The principal and his/her family are key members of this community and are not only sources of information but models to be copied. The parish priest and his/her family, although not as close as members of the school community, are also very important role models.

3.      We are called to be a part of the local parish.

ATTS was established in a very strong Anglican community with an active parish life. The students get a great deal of support from the people of the parish and in turn they  give much to the community as they put into practice the teaching which they receive. The principal and the parish priest work very closely together to see that the students and the parish get the greatest mutual benefits possible from having the school situated in Pangnirtung.

4.      We are called to be a part of the whole Church.

Although the school is in a very isolated part of Canada there is a continuous emphasis throughout the course on the fact that we are a part of the catholic Church. The principal, in consultation with the Bishops of the Diocese of the Arctic, invites people with particular expertise and a keen interest in the people of the north to teach at the school. These people bring a real sense of the universal Church to the school and take away a lasting and generally very good impression of the church in the north.

The school is also a source of much interest to many members of the church around the world. People faithfully support the school by their prayers and are also most generous with their gifts, making it possible for the school to continue its operation. The school community is kept well informed of all this prayerful and dedicated support and so is helped to feel a part of the whole Church of Christ.

STANDARD OF TRAINING

Every training institute is concerned about maintaining a high standard and ATTS is no exception. The method used by ATTS is to ask people of high standing in academic and church life to teach in its program and evaluate it. Lecturers of remarkable ability have contributed to the school. As a result there is an established curriculum for the school.

There are provisions under the territorial education acts to provide financial assistance for ATTS students.

STANDARDS OF ENTRANCE AND TEACHING

Just as ATTS has its own standards for graduation on completion of the course so also it has, because of its unique situation, its own standards for qualification to enter the course leading to ordination. The difference between the cultural setting of ATTS and that of southern theological colleges means that the qualifications for entrance will also be different.

Application Process

The application forms which must be completed by students, their spouses, and their parish priests, cover a much broader area than academic abilities. Questions are asked not only about their academic qualifications but also about life experiences, ministry in the local community and personal spiritual life and practices. Their local parish priest is asked to comment on these replies and make his/her own comments on the individual. The whole is then carefully and prayerfully reviewed by the Bishops of the Diocese in consultation with the principal and selected senior clergy of the Diocese.

On this basis people with university training have been accepted and others with as low as Grade 6 academic standing who have shown great qualities in other areas of life, have entered and graduated from the course. Every student accepted into the school is expected to be able to complete the course and be acceptable for ordination. This acceptance of students with a wide range of academic backgrounds means that there is often a strong emphasis throughout the course on academic upgrading. This is possible with the small classes that the school enjoys.

Language

Clergy in the Diocese of the Arctic are required to be a least bilingual and to function in English and the predominant aboriginal language of the community in which they live. For this reason, all students entering the school are required to be proficient or to be able, while at ATTS, to work towards proficiency in English and an aboriginal language. Most students in the past have been required to improve their proficiency in the English language. This practice has enabled students to increasingly use the school library – 98% of the library materials being in English.

Worship, including Sunday services in the parish church, are conducted in both English and Inuktitut. This helps the students gain confidence in the public use of both languages.

Teaching

Throughout the course visiting lecturers are expected to remember that they are usually instructing students in their second language. Most lecturers after the first few days find this less hard than they expect since the classes are so small and feedback easily received. Lecturers are also asked to remember that they are instructing in a cross-cultural situation and are expected to adapt their material accordingly. Again, as long as lecturers remember that these are adults of another culture they are teaching, and will not be satisfied with just youth teaching of the lecturer’s own culture, this difficulty is often found to be less onerous than anticipated. When lecturers do have difficulty and complications with the cross-cultural situation, it is suggested that they share this difficulty with the students. The lecturer’s difficulty – when shared with the students – can be of great value to them. They will, in the ministry for which they are preparing, often find themselves teaching in a reverse, but similar, cross-cultural situation.

Although the chief function of ATTS is to train students for ordained ministry in the Diocese of the Arctic, graduates are ordained for ministry in the Anglican Communion and not just this one diocese. The education given must be broader than that which might be considered necessary for ministry either in the Diocese of the Arctic or even in the Canadian church alone.

DAILY PROGRAM

The daily program may be modified to fit into other programs and unusual situations but the general pattern for Monday to Friday is:


Time
Program
9 a.m.
Morning Devotions
Monday & Friday – Morning Prayer in Chapel
Tuesday & Thursday – Family Prayers in Homes
Wednesday – Eucharist in Chapel
Each day this is followed by Bible Study in one of the following – The Gospel of John, the Letter to the Hebrews, the Revelation to John
10 – 10:45 a.m.
Lecture Period 1
11 – noon
Lecture Period 2
1:30 – 2:30 p.m.
Lecture Period 3
2:45 – 3:30 p.m.
Lecture Period 4
After 3:30 students are free to do homework and to take part in parish activities.

Sunday – Students are expected to take part in the regular parish activities assisting where requested under the direction of the principal and parish priest.

Note: Although periods of teaching are called Lecture Periods the style of teaching may be a discussion or have another format with which the lecturer feels more comfortable.


ACCOMMODATION

The school is housed in what used to be St. Luke’s Hospital which was founded in 1931 by the Anglican Church and served the people of the area until 1972 when it was closed. Its work had been taken over by a hospital built in Iqaluit and a nursing station in Pangnirtung itself.

The principal lives in part of the main school building and visiting lecturers stay with the principal. Four student families live in apartments at the opposite end of the main school building.

SUPPORT

School

The school is supported through the interest and by the prayers of many friends of the Diocese of the Arctic who have developed a special interest in the school and its work. These friends are also most generous in their financial support. The Diocese and the National Church also designates funds for the work of the school. Interestingly enough the Arctic Fellowship started by the 1st Bishop of the Arctic, Bishop Flemming, continues to support ATTS.

Students

The students receive grants and bursaries from the education departments within the Diocese. Students also receive assistance from the school administration in seeking other funding. The school provides subsidized accommodation. Some parishes and individuals are encouraged to support students.

Lecturers

The principal is the only permanent staff person at the school but many other lecturers are invited as guests. Please note:

In keeping with the community emphasis in the school, lecturers are encouraged to be accompanied by their spouses when they come to the school. The school cannot accept any responsibility for the spouse’s travel costs but offers accommodation as a guest of the principal and opportunities to minister in the school community, particularly to the spouses of the students.


THE LIBRARY

The foundation of the ATTS library is based on the collection of the late Rev. David McQuire. This collection was donated to the school by Rev. McQuire’s widow. The library now has a collection of over two thousand books.

Those who come to the school to teach are invited to suggest books that would be valuable to the library, remembering that although students leave with a reading ability at the Grade 12 level they come with as little as Grade 6.


THE CURRICULUM

The ATTS curriculum is unique and developed to serve the people of our Diocese. (See Appendix I for development history.)

Detail of the Curriculum

The curriculum is set out in far greater detail than that normally found in a Theological College Calendar. There are three reasons for this detail:

1.      Visiting lecturers require fairly explicit details on the section of the course they are to teach at ATTS.

        The principal is able to refer a lecturer to the particular section to be taught, with a brief resume of what has already been covered and what will be covered after the visitor has left.

        Visiting lecturers are also able to find out from the curriculum the details about other subject areas the students will have studied. For example: A Church Historian would be able to refer to the way a particular medieval theologian developed his theory of the atonement, knowing that the students have already studied the biblical basis of the atonement.

2.      The principal can see easily, at any time, what areas of the course have been covered and what remains to be taught.

        ATTS students will be ordained to serve in a part of the world where continuing education is difficult to obtain and meetings with other clergy are often less than once a year. So it is important that they be exposed to as many areas of study as possible during the three years they attend ATTS.

3.      The students themselves appreciate knowing precisely where they are in the course.

        Seeing their concerns printed in a detailed curriculum reduces their anxiety about not being prepared in a particular subject or skill required for the ordained ministry.

Time Allocations

The hours assigned to each area or subject are only suggestions. The whole course has to be covered during the three years. All students are different, however, having different strengths, weaknesses, interests and concerns. Some classes will require more time in one area and some less than that allocated. This adjustment can be made by the principal who has the oversight of the whole course.


PERSONNEL

The only permanent staff at the ATTS are the principal and spouse. Other faculty members are invited to teach in the school from time to time for periods of one, two or more weeks, as they are able.

PERMANENT STAFF

Principal and Spouse

1970 – 1972           The Rev.Canon Michael G. and Mrs. Margaret Gardener

1972 – 1975           The Rev. Canon Michael G. and Mrs. Margaret Gardener

1976 – 1979           The Rev. Dr. Harold and Mrs. Betty Seegmiller

1981 – 1984           The Rev. Canon Peter C. and Mrs. Sheila Bishop

1986 – 1989           The Rev. David and Mrs. Jane Sissmore

1991 – 1994           The Rev. Roy and Mrs. Annie Bowkett

1998 – 2000           The Rev. Roy and Mrs. Annie Bowkett

2003 - 2006             The Rev. Roy and Mrs. Annie Bowkett

2015 -          The Rev. Joseph and Mrs. Jennifer Royal


VISITING FACULTY MEMBERS

If you are interested a list of visiting faculty members can be provided on request.


APPENDIX I

DEVELOPMENT OF THE ATTS CURRICULUM
(as written by Rev. Canon Peter Bishop 1981)

History of the ATTS Curriculum

Prior to the development of this curriculum in 1981, the school followed a curriculum very similar to that found in the calendars of most theological colleges, although the principals who lead the training modified the program according to their own experience to fit the situation and the students of ATTS. When Rev. Canon Peter Bishop was appointed as principal he was not satisfied with this arrangement and after discussion with the Bishop, he developed the curriculum as set out in this handbook. Since its development it has been revised twice but changes have been modest and the basic ideas behind the curriculum have stayed unchanged.

Concerns about the Curriculum

Canon Bishop’s dissatisfaction with the school curriculum and its use prior to his appointment arose from a number of concerns. The curriculum in use was obviously from a culture which was not that of the students. Although adapted for the students during the course, despite the best of intentions, Canon Bishop felt that the curriculum should arise from the culture of the people being taught, and to be seen by all as coming from that culture. Although he came from outside of the culture of the students, he was determined to develop what would be an appropriate curriculum for the school and its students.

An important part of the school program is offered by lecturers from universities, theological colleges and churches in southern Canada and indeed from around the world, who have limited or no experience of Inuit culture. Most of these people are very concerned about this knowledge gap and question how they should teach in the situation. A curriculum arising from the culture of the people was a first step to answering this concern. A second step was the production of the handbook with explanations of the curriculum of the school.

The Model of Christian Education at ATTS

The model of Christian education developed at ATTS is that described by Donald E. Miller in his book, “Story and Context – An Introduction to Christian Education1. This model is of the faith community as a lecturer. At ATTS education takes place within the world-wide faith community represented by visiting lecturers, then in the smaller faith community of the congregation of St. Luke’s, Pangnirtung. In the even smaller community of the school itself, the principal acts as a catalyst for learning of the varieties of faith communities in which he has been a part.

The term ‘curriculum’ applies to ATTS as defined by Miller in its broadest sense: ‘the total set of activities, relationships and resources that give shape to a community’s educative structure.2 Miller calls for, ‘not simply reinterpretation of the community’s story…but transformation of the community itself…to enable its members to see their own story within the larger Christian one.’3 In the small ATTS community this transformation is attempted.

Cultural Concerns in the Development of the new Curriculum

There are many differences between the culture of the north and that of the society in which many southern theological colleges are located. Some are immediately obvious while some are revealed only while living in the north. Both obvious and hidden differences have had a major impact on the development of this curriculum, although not all of these are discussed in this brief appendix. There are differences also which are, even now, only just being clarified, a process which may never end. It must also be remembered that culture is always changing and in fact no two people are ever at the same position in the life and development of the culture of their people.

In any discussion about the culture of the north it is helpful to remember the vast changes that have taken place in the north over the last few years.

At the end of the 19th century many people in the north were living in a way very similar to that of their ancestors a thousand years before. Stone implements were not uncommon and metal was rarely, if ever, used. People in some areas were completely unaware of the existence of other races and cultures. The Inuit were a remarkable people existing with the very minimum of essentials.

With the coming of explorers, whalers, traders and missionaries the north began to open up. However, apart from giving some access to the tools and food of another culture, this incursion made little difference to the basic nomadic life of the aboriginal people. If was not until the 1950s that rapid change really came to the north. For many it is only in the last 40 years that settlement life, with school for the children, universal health care, modern affordable housing and the possibility of wage employment, has become the norm. it is only in the last 25 years that radio, television and frequently scheduled air service has brought almost constant communication. This change of lifestyle has also brought a great deal of hardship, frustration and confusion and this has lead many into the abusive use of sex, alcohol and drugs and all the problems that follow such activity.

This means that it is only since the turn of the century that the people of the north have been moving from a completely oral culture towards a literate culture. Although almost all of the people of the north are now literate in their own language, and many in English or French as well, the move from an oral to a literate culture is by no means complete. In the development of the ATTS curriculum this move has been a major consideration. A listing of the various major differences which began to become clear between the cultures may be helpful.

ORAL CULTURE
LITERATE CULTURE
People hear voices in their heads and dreams and visions are meaningful and important.
Voices in the head, dreams and visions are not generally taken seriously.
People tend to treat life wholistically. Different activities are seen as part of the whole of life, the whole being greater than the sum of its parts.
Life and ones activities are analyzed and divided up into separate and isolated compartments. eg work/play/art, sacred/secular
People naturally tend to think laterally moving between thoughts which seem completely disconnected to the vertical thinker. (These terms are those used by de Bono to describe patters of thinking.4)
Vertical thinking is accepted as the norm and disconnected thinking frowned upon.
People tend to think only of the present, treating the past and future as unimportant. In a land where food is scarce this leads to a feast and famine society.
Plans for the future are very important and activities are done now because they have always been done. Guidance for the present is found in the literature of the past.
Learning is done by apprenticeship and observation.
Learning which is valued is done in a classroom type of situation

Some other changes which have taken place in northern society over the past 60 years are:

A movement from the nomadic hunting way of life – living in extended family groupings – to settled life in communities of several hundred people. However hunting is still very important to most of the people of the north and getting ‘out on the land’ is an essential part of a healthy life. This factor was recognized in the development of the curriculum and regular ‘hunting days’ are part of the regular schedule.

There is a growing understanding of the dialects of people in other areas of the Arctic as travel becomes easier and communication through television, radio, telephone, and the internet increases. English is rapidly becoming the common language of the north as people adopt it as their second, and in some cases their first language.

The Anglican Church is moving with this change but it has a proud tradition of working in aboriginal languages. This tradition is recognized and encouraged in the life and work of the school even though most instruction is in English. Since English is the second language of most of the students pushing into the meaning of the English used often leads to fascinating discussions with students. Jargon is challenged and the depth of words investigated. Sometimes it is discovered that the nuances of biblical language are more closely contained in words of the native language than in a whole collection of attempts to express those words in English.

A dramatic alteration of the native religion and religious practices has taken place over the last 100 years. After many years of hearing faithful teaching and seeing a demonstration of the love of God in Christ, the people of the north embraced the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ with great joy. In doing so, many of the traditional religious beliefs, practices and mythology were intentionally discarded by the people; have been forgotten. What the people as Christians wish to keep of these traditions must obviously be a part of the curriculum at ATTS. It must also help them, in a way consistent with their new found faith, fill the void which the abandonment of much of their tradition has left.

These differences from the society in which many southern Canadian theological colleges are found, and the changes which have come to the people of the north have had a great impact on the development of this curriculum. The reader of the curriculum will immediately notice the loss of the traditional titles of theological college courses. Apart from the two short sections entitled ‘Introduction’ and ‘Theology’ all courses relate in their title to Covenant. Old Testament Studies are called ‘God and the People of the Old Covenant’, the gospels are studied under the title ‘The New Covenant made Possible’ and the life and work of the Church since Pentecost, under various subheadings, comes under the general heading of ‘God and the People of the New Covenant’. The curriculum has been divided in this way, not only to constantly remind the students of God’s merciful relationship with his people since the beginning of time, but to help students find roots for their people’s religious life. Many of the religious roots, along with much of their mythology, was abandoned when the people of the north became Christians. They need roots in a history which they might claim as their own and myths to explain why things are as they are. Roots and myths are discovered as students look back into the history of the people of the Covenant whose community their people have joined.

The people of Nunavik (Arctic Quebec) tell stories with which the written records of Henry Hudson’s voyages agree so closely that they must refer to this explorer’s work and death. However, these stories are told in such a way that it could be thought that the people might be speaking of events witnessed by their grandparents two generations ago. This shortening of time may not be important in the telling of such stories but when students come to study the development of Christian traditions and thoughts a sense of time and order in the past must be developed. This pattern was used in the titles of the courses. A very important part of the curriculum is the development of a timeline on which people and events can be placed in correct relationship to each other and the thousands of years that have elapsed since the times of the biblical characters.

The emphasis on people in the plan of the curriculum fits the importance of people in the life and thinking of the Inuit. Materialism is rapidly coming to the north and the concern for people may be losing out, but aboriginal Canadians have much to teach the people of the dominant culture about the relative value of people compared with things. In the Introduction to this handbook reference was made to a hanging made by the students’ spouses when they first came to the school for the 1981-1984 session. That hanging is a constant remembrance of this concern with people, as it is covered with folk of all ages and sizes. The term ‘Covenant’ used in course titles arises out of this emphasis on people. The pattern of teaching emphasizes the fact that it is with real people that God has dealt with throughout history.

Along with this emphasis on people is the constant question ‘what does a particular teaching mean to me here and now?’ Following from this questions goes another question, ‘what is the working out of this teaching in my life, in the life of my family, my community and the world?’ The Inuit are a people who very recently had no time for anything which did not support and extend the physical life and themselves, their families and their communities. Story telling and other arts were valued but were practiced only when activities to support physical life were impossible or completed. (This latter being very rare). This curriculum has large sections which talk about practical situations. This is not because philosophy and theory is unimportant but because in this context its value can only be appreciated as it is seen to be worked out in practice.

When the people of the north accepted the Gospel of the love of God in Christ, they became people who treasured the Bible. They learned to read so that they could read the books translated by the first missionaries. These books clearly taught that the Bible was most important and that all the teaching they heard from these missionaries was to be tested by what was found in the Holy Scriptures. The entire Bible has not been translated even yet into Inuktitut; in fact some dialects have only small sections readily available. Some of the older translations left a lot to be desired in their accuracy and style, but this did not prevent the people of the north developing a great respect for the Bible. They expect those who teach to be able to demonstrate clearly that what they teach is that which is taught in this precious literature, even if it has to be explained that it comes from a portion which is not yet translated. Teaching in the curriculum always seeks its roots in the Scripture. Church History is the story of the development of the church from Acts of the Apostles. Theology is the development of the theology of the Bible. The application of theology in the day to day activity of the Christian arises out of an application of the same power and motives which drove the church of the first century.

In using this developmental model students are free to see past developments and different interpretations of the same biblical documents as an ongoing process. Students are encouraged to take these same documents and interpret them for themselves and their people within their own changing culture. Most people are very conservative when their faith and religious practice is challenged. The question which gets asked so often, even before whether the change is right or wrong, is, ‘may we change?’ This question is asked in the north and the answer, ‘yes’ needs to be demonstrated clearly. The people need to be free to change and to change so that their religious life and faith becomes truly a part of their very own culture.

Dreams and visions which were very much a part of the life of the people of the Bible so often have been treated as having no significance in literate culture and have been explained away. In dealing with people of an oral culture such activities must be taken seriously. Not only may God have some crucial things to say to us through these means but we must be prepared to accept these methods of communication as valid. (The people of the Bible although having books they were readily available to them all and hence they lived, more or less, as an oral culture.)

One area of cultural difference is not immediately obvious to a lecturer, but it has caused many misunderstandings, confusion and much frustration, that of thinking patterns. Most of the lecturers coming to ATTS come from a system which emphasizes vertical thinking, often towards the exclusion of lateral thinking.

People brought up in a literate culture tend to follow lines of thinking which are followed logically from point to point and the validity of the conclusion is determined by the validity of each step. They do not think exclusively in this way, but, when following a line of vertical thought, find it extremely difficult to bring disconnected thought into their thinking. The situation is then complicated further by the fact that if a disconnected thought does arise, the immediate natural reaction of the vertical thinker is to judge it and dismiss it as irrelevant.

People coming from an oral culture have a pattern of thinking which is, to a greater or lessor degree, naturally that of the lateral thinker. In this pattern thoughts do not need to be connected logically. Disconnected thoughts are not readily dismissed as irrelevant, but are, rather, accepted in the treatment of the concern. A conclusion is reached and then moving back, links are formed to validate the conclusion. This difference in the way of thinking between the two cultures explains much of the confusion that often arises in the ATTS classroom during discussions.

The ATTS curriculum has worked satisfactorily and honours the people and the culture for which it was developed.

APPENDIX II

INFORMATION REQUIRED FROM THOSE INVITED TO TEACH AT ATTS


Teaching at ATTS is by invitation of the principal, in consultation with the bishops of the diocese. Those invited are asked to answer the following questions as early as possible in order to help the principal organize the course of study. Answers to these questions will also prevent any embarrassing misunderstanding at a later time.